Image Credits

Adam Smith. A detail of an illustration in the second volume of Charles Coquelin and Gilbert-⁠Urbain Guillaumin’s Dictionnaire de l’économie politique (Paris: Librairie de Guillaumin et Cie, 1853), after the engraving by James Tassie. Image courtesy of the Vanderblue Memorial Collection of Smithiana, Kress Collection of Business and Economics, Baker Library, Harvard Business School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Alcopley (Alfred L. Copley), 1963. Photograph by Fred Stein, courtesy of Una Dora Copley.

Alexander Calder with a sculpture of Edgard Varèse, 1963. Photograph by Ugo Mulas. The Varèse sculpture is in the collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.

Alexandre Weill. Photograph by Erwin Hanfstaengl, Paris, after 1860. In the collection of the Musée Carnavalet, Paris. Courtesy of the website of the Musées de la Ville de Paris.

Alexis de Tocqueville, 1850. Portrait by Théodore Chassériau. Courtesy of the website of the Musée national du Château de Versailles.

Andrew Marvell, ca. 1655-⁠60. Portrait by an unknown artist. Courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Angelus Silesius (Johannes Scheffler). Image courtesy of the website of the Stiftung Kulturwerk Schlesien, Würzburg. The portrait was published by Arno Lubos in the first volume of his Geschichte der Literatur Schlesiens (Munich: Bergstadtverlag Wilhelm Gottlob Korn, 1960).

An anonymous photographer, “La Seine, vue du Pont-⁠neuf” (ca. 1839). In the collection of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris. Photograph courtesy of the website Vergue.

Antoine de Courtin, a portrait from his translation of Grotius. The original painting is by Charles Cheurier, and the engraving by Cornelis Vermeulen, the frontispiece of Courtin’s translation of Grotius, Le Droit de la guerre et de la paix (Paris, 1687).

Aristotle. This marble bust is a Roman copy of an original work by Lysippos (the alabaster mantle is a more recent addition). In the collection of the Palazzo Altemps, Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.

–––––. This head is a Roman copy in marble of an original Greek work (late fourth century). In the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Arman (Armand Pierre Fernandez), “Hommage à Yves Klein” (1992). The photograph is courtesy of the website of the Galerie Omagh, Paris.

–––––, “Nucléide” (1964). Image courtesy of the website of the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

Arthur Rimbaud in company at the Hôtel de l’Univers in Aden, August 1880. Photograph by Georges Révoil. Courtesy of the blog maintained by the Libraires Associés, and of the website of Adoc-Photos, Paris.

August Strindberg, Gersau, 1886. A photographic self-⁠portrait. Courtesy of the website of the Kungliga biblioteket, Stockholm.

Auguste Blanqui, 1870s. Photograph by Émile Appert. Courtesy of the webportal The Siege and Commune of Paris, 1870-⁠1871, a project of the Northwestern University Library, Evanston.

Aulus Gellius, Noctes atticae: the cover of the 1515 Aldine edition, detail. In the collection of the Bamburgh Library, Durham University Library. Image courtesy of the Bamburgh Library’s webportal.

Baruch Spinoza. An anonymous late seventeenth-⁠century or early eighteenth-⁠century portrait, probably Dutch. In the collection of the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel. Courtesy of the library’s website.

Bertolt Brecht and Walter Benjamin, Skovsbostrand, 1934. A photograph in the collection of the Bertolt-⁠Brecht-⁠Archiv, Akademie der Künste, Berlin.

Bertrand de Jouvenel. The photograph is courtesy of the website of the Institut Coppet.

Blaise Pascal. An anonymous late seventeenth-⁠century portrait. Courtesy of the website of the Archevêché, Toulouse.

Brian Rogers and Madeline Best, Hot Box (2012). Image courtesy of the website of Performance Space New York.

Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo). He was the model for this part of Alessandro Allori’s Trinità (ca. 1567-⁠71) in the Cappella di San Luca, Florence. Photograph by Sailko, courtesy of Wikipedia.

Bruno Auguste Braquehais, “Statue brisée de l’empereur Napoléon, place Vendôme, Paris Ier” (May 16, 1871). In the collection of the Biblioteca Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro. Photograph courtesy of the website Vergue.

Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi), “Augustine” (ca. 1600). The painting was re-⁠discovered in 2011.

Castello Plan (“Afbeeldinge van de Stadt Amsterdam in Nieuw Neederlandt”), surveyed by Jacques Cortelyou. In the collection of the I. N. Phelps Stokes Collection of American Historical Prints, the Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, the New York Public Library. Photograph courtesy of the library’s Digital Collections webpage.

Charles Baudelaire, 1855. Photograph by Nadar (Gaspard-⁠⁠Félix Tournachon).

–––––, 1862. An original printing of the photograph by Nadar. Image courtesy of the website of Sotheby’s.

Charles Darwin, 1840. Portrait in chalk and watercolor by George Richmond. The image is courtesy of the Darwin Heirlooms Trust.

Charles Lamb, 1804. Portrait by William Hazlitt. Courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Charles Marville, “Intérieur des Halles centrales, rue couverte du corps de l’est, Paris Ier” (1874). In the American Institute of Architects and American Architectural Foundation Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Photograph courtesy of the website Vergue.

–––––, “Marché aux veaux, Paris Ve” (May 1868). In the collection of the Bibliothèque de l’Hôtel de Ville, Paris. Photograph courtesy of the website Vergue.

Charles Péguy, ca. 1900. Photograph by Eugène Pirou.

Christian Friedrich Tieck, plaster cast of Friedrich Schelling (1809). In the collection of the Neue Pinakothek, Munich. Photograph courtesy of the website of the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen.

Claude Lévi-⁠Strauss. Photograph courtesy of Emmanuelle Loyer and the website of the Sciences Po, Université Sorbonne, Paris.

Commissioners’ Plan (1811), detail. The image is courtesy of the webpage of the New York City Municipal Archives.

David Hume, 1754. Portrait by Allan Ramsay. In the collection of the National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh. Image courtesy of the website of the museum.

Edgar Allan Poe, Providence, Rhode Island, November 13, 1848. Daguerreotype by Samuel W. Hartshorn (the “Whitman” Daguerreotype). Courtesy of the Brown University Library, Providence.

–––––, Richmond, Virginia, late September, 1849. Daguerreotype by William Abbott Pratt (the “Thompson” Daguerreotype). Courtesy of the Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York.

Edgard Varèse. The photograph shows the composer in the sound-⁠studio. It is courtesy of the website of the WNYC radio station, New York.

–––––, between 1915 and 1920. Photograph courtesy of the webpage of the George Grantham Bain Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Edward Morgan Forster, Garsington Manor, Oxfordshire, 1922. Photograph by Lady Ottoline Morrell. Courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Else Lasker-⁠Schüler, Jerusalem, 1944. This, the last known photograph of her, was taken by Sonia Gidal. It is courtesy of the website of the Else Lasker-⁠Schüler Archiv, Wuppertal.

Ernst Jünger, 1932. The photograph is courtesy of the website of AKG Images, Berlin.

Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann. Portrait by an unknown artist. Photograph by Jörg P. Anders. Courtesy of the website of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz.

Félix Lope de Vega. Portrait by an anonymous artist of the School of Madrid, later 17th century. In the collection of the Museo Lázaro Galdiano, Madrid.

Fitz Hugh Ludlow. Photograph courtesy of an Internet article by the author Justin Martin. In the care of the Special Collections of Schaffer Library, Union College, Schenectady.

François Morellet, “Sphère-⁠trames” (1962). The image is courtesy of the website of the ZERO Foundation, Düsseldorf.

Franz Hessel, Spazieren in Berlin (Leipzig and Vienna: Verlag Dr. Hans Epstein, 1929): the front cover. Image courtesy of the website of the Orte des jüdischen Lebens in Berlin, a project of the Beuth Hochschule für Technik, Berlin.

Franz Marc, ca. 1913. The photograph is courtesy of the Franz Marc Museum, Kochel am See.

–––––, “Kämpfende Formen” (1914). Image courtesy of the website of the Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich.

Friedrich Hölderlin, 1792. A portrait in pastel by Franz Karl Hiemer. In the collection of the Deutsches Literaturarchiv, Marbach am Neckar.

Friedrich Nietzsche in uniform, Naumburg, late 1868. Photograph by Ferdinand Henning.

–––––, Basel, ca. 1875. Photograph by Friedrich Hartmann.

–––––, Naumburg, early September 1882. Photograph by Gustav Adolf Schultze. Courtesy of the website of the Heidelberg Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Friedrich Schiller, between 1786 and 1791. Portrait by Anton Graff. In the collection of the Städtische Galerie, Dresden.

Georg Philipp Harsdörffer. Engraving by Jakob Sandrart, after a drawing by Georg Strauch.

Georg Simmel, ca. 1901. Photograph by Julius Cornelius Schaarwächter. In the collection of the Porträtsammlung Berliner Hochschullehrer, Historische Sammlungen der Universitäts-⁠Bibliothek, Humboldt-⁠Universität zu Berlin.

George Herbert. Engraving by Robert White, 1674. Courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

George Santayana, during his time in Berlin, May 24, 1888. Drawing by an unknown hand. Courtesy of the webportal dedicated to Bernard Berenson at Harvard, maintained by the Villa I Tatti, Harvard University.

Georges Cziffra, during a recital of Liszt’s “Hungarian Rhapsody,” no. 6, in a concert broadcast on the BBC, July 22, 1962. Image courtesy of the Youtube channel Poemasinfonico.

Georges-⁠Eugène Haussmann, ca. 1865. Photograph by Pierre Petit. Courtesy of the website of the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

Gershom Scholem, 1935. The photograph is courtesy of the Gershom Gerhard Scholem Archive, Archives Department, The National Library of Israel, Jerusalem.

Gertrude Stein, 1937. Photomontage by Cecil Beaton. In the collection of the Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s, London. Courtesy of the Gertrude Stein webpage of the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

––––– with William Lundell, during her 1934 radio broadcast. Photograph courtesy of the website of the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven.

Giambattista Vico. Engraving courtesy of the Attend NYC website.

Giuseppe Verdi, 1860. Photograph taken by Nadar (Gaspard-⁠⁠Félix Tournachon), Paris.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Portrait attributed to Johann Heinrich Keller, ca. 1710-⁠30. In the collection of the Glasgow Museums Resource Centre, Glasgow. Courtesy of the website of Art UK.

Günther Anders (Günther Stern), United States, 1940s. Photograph in the Nachlass Günther Anders, Literaturarchiv der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, Vienna. Courtesy of the Literaturarchiv’s webportal.

Guillaume Apollinaire (Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki), in an Italian war-⁠hospital, 1916. Photograph in the collection of the Bibliothèque historique de la Ville de Paris. Courtesy of the website Chemins de mémoire, a service of the French Ministère des Armées.

Gunther Schuller, 1964. Photograph by Lew Merrim. Courtesy of the Monkmeyer Press Photo Service, New York.

Gustav Mahler en route to the Hofoper, Vienna, 1904. Photograph courtesy of the Gustav Mahler website.

Gustave Flaubert, ca. 1846. An anonymous Daguerreotype. Courtesy of Agence France Presse and Getty Images.

Hannah Arendt, October 28, 1964. A still image from her television interview with Günter Gaus in the “Zur Person” series.

–––––, at the University of Chicago, ca. 1966. Photograph courtesy of the website of Anne C. Heller.

–––––, ca. 1972. The photograph is courtesy of the Vera List Collection, New York, and Sternthal Books, Montréal.

Hans Lodeizen, 1948. Photograph courtesy of the website of the Literatuurmuseum, The Hague.

Hector Berlioz, 1832. Portrait by Émile Signol. In the collection of the Villa Medici, Rome.

Heinrich Blücher, 1939. This image of his French permis de séjour is courtesy of the website of Anne C. Heller.

–––––, 1960s. Photograph courtesy of the website of Anne C. Heller.

Heinrich Heine, 1843. Portrait by Isidor Popper. Image courtesy of the webportal of the Heinrich-⁠Heine-⁠Institut, Düsseldorf.

Heinz Mack, Otto Piene, and Günther Uecker, “Lichtraum (Hommage à Fontana),” as installed at the third Documenta in Kassel, 1964. This pair of images is courtesy of the website of the ZERO Foundation, Düsseldorf.

Henri Bergson, 1890s (?). Photograph by Michel Didier. Courtesy of the Archives Larbor.

Henry Cowell. Photograph courtesy of the website of the Ensemble intercontemporain, Paris.

Henry James, ca. 1900. Photograph by William M. Vander Weyde.

Henry Louis Mencken. Photograph by Robert F. Kniesche. In the Robert Kniesche Photograph Collection, Special Collections Department, H. Furlong Baldwin Library, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore.

Henry Purcell (?), 1690s. Portrait by John Closterman, though there is some doubt whether the sitter is in fact either Henry or his brother Daniel. In the collection of the Royal Society of Musicians of Great Britain, London.

Heraclitus. A bust, ca. 1700–⁠25, attributed to Giacomo Antonio Ponsonelli. Image courtesy of the website of Sotheby’s.

––––– (?). A bust in the collection of the Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Image courtesy of the website of the museum.

Herbert Read. Photograph courtesy of the website of The Green Howards Museum, Richmond.

Hermann Goepfert. Photograph courtesy of the website of the Galerie Dierking, Zürich.

–––––, “Optophonium” (1960-⁠61), as exhibited at the Guggenheim Museum in 2014. Photograph by David Heald. The image is courtesy of the website of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Hesiod. This head is a Roman copy in marble of the Greek original. In the collection of the National Archaeological Museum (Eθνικό Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο), Athens.

Homer. A bust in the collection of the Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. The photograph was taken by Giorgio Sommer sometime after around 1865. In the Andrew Dickson White Architectural Photographs Collection, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library, Ithaca.

Hugo Grotius. Portrait by Jan Anthonisz. van Ravesteyn. In the collection of the Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford. Courtesy of the website of Art UK.

Immanuel Kant, 1791. Portrait by Gottlieb Doebler. The painting has been lent for the long term to the Ostpreußische Landesmuseum, Lüneburg.

Isak Dinesen (Karen Blixen). This photograph of the raconteuse at her typewriter, is courtesy of Richard Polt’s website, The Classic Typewriter Page.

Jackson Pollock, Springs, New York, February 1949. Photograph by Arnold Newman. Courtesy of the website of the Huxley-⁠Parlour Gallery, London.

–––––, 1949. Photograph by Martha Holmes for Life.

Jakob Burckhardt, ca. 1894. The photograph is courtesy of the website of the Bildarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin.

James McNeill Whistler, in the garden of his studio, Chelsea, summer 1885. Photograph courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Jasper Johns, 1955. Photograph by Walter Silver. Courtesy of the webpage of the Rudi Blesh Papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Jean Barbeyrac. Engraving courtesy of the website of the Deutsches Hugenotten-⁠Museum, Bad Karlshafen.

Jean Cocteau, 1922. Photograph by Man Ray. Courtesy of the website of the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

Jean Tinguely, “Mes Étoiles – Concert pour sept peintures” (1958). The image is courtesy of the website of the ZERO Foundation, Düsseldorf.

Jean-⁠Paul Sartre, mobilized for the war, 1939. Photograph courtesy of the website of the Association de la Régie Théâtrale, Paris.

–––––, 1961. Photograph by Ida Kar.

Johann Nestroy, 1834. Portrait by Franz Schrötzberger. In the collection of the Kunstgewerbemuseum, Berlin.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1814. Portait by Karl Josef Raabe. Collection of the Wallraf-⁠Richartz-⁠Museum & Fondation Corboud, Cologne.

John Arbuthnot, ca. 1720. Portrait by W. Robinson. In the collection of the National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh. Image courtesy of the website of the museum.

John Milton. Portrait by an unknown painter. In the collection of Christ’s College, Cambridge University. Image courtesy of the website Darkness Visible, a project of the College.

John Quidor, “The Headless Horseman Pursuing Ichabod Crane” (1858). The image is courtesy of the website of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.

Jorge Luis Borges, 1943. Photograph by Gisèle Freund. Courtesy of the Granger Collection, New York.

Josef Hoëné Wronski, commemorative plaque by Józef Aumiller, 1928. Image courtesy of the website of the Warszawskie Centrum Numizmatyczne.

Jules Michelet, ca. 1842. Drawing by Thomas Couture. Private collection. Courtesy of the website of Crispian Riley-⁠Smith Fine Arts.

–––––, ca. 1842. Painting by Thomas Couture. Collection of the Musée Carnavalet, Paris.

Julián Carrillo, August 1959. Photograph by Joe Scherschel for Life. Courtesy of the website of the Siglo de Torreón and of Sonido 13.

Jusepe de Ribera, “Aristotle,” 1637. The painting is in the collection of the Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis. Image courtesy of the website of the museum.

Karl Budde. Photograph courtesy of the website Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren.

Karl Grün. Image from Adolf Hinrichsen (ed.), Das deutsche Schriftsteller-⁠Album (Berlin and Leipzig: Friedrich, 1885). In the collection of the Museen der Stadt, Lüdenscheid. Courtesy of the webpages Westfälische Geschichte, a project of the Landschaftsverband Westfalen-⁠Lippe-⁠Institut für westfälische Regionalgeschichte.

Karl Wolfskehl. Photograph by the Atelier Hans Pernat, Munich. In the collection of the Stadtmuseum, Munich. Courtesy of the website Literaturportal Bayern.

Konrad Theodor Preuß. The photograph is published in Fiesta, literatura y magia en el Nayarit: Ensayos sobre coras, huicholes y mexicaneros de Konrad Theodor Preuss, ed. Jesús Jauregui and Johannes Neurath (Mexico City: Centro de estudios mexicanos y centroamericanos, 1998).

Leo Ornstein. Some of the images are courtesy of the Leo Ornstein website and of the website Old Magazine Articles.

Léon Daudet, 1930. Photograph by Paul Nadar. Courtesy of the website of the Médiathèque de l’Architecture et du Patrimoine, Charenton-⁠le-⁠Pont.

Leone Hebreo (Judah Leon Abravanel), Dialogi d’amore: the title page of the first printed edition (Rome: Antonio Blado d’Assola, 1535). Image courtesy of the Internet Archive.

Lou Salomé, Paul Rée, and Friedrich Nietzsche, Lucerne, May 1882. Photograph by the Atelier Jules Bonnet.

Ludwig Wittgenstein, 1950. Photograph by Knut Erik Tranøj, detail.

Lynn Goldsmith, “Bruce Springsteen Giving the Shhh” (1977). Photograph courtesy of Goldsmith’s website.

Malcolm de Chazal, in Curepipe, ca. 1950. Photograph in the collection of Robert Furlong.

Marina Abramović, The Life and Death of Marina Abramović. Photograph by Lucie Jansch, courtesy of the website of the Manchester International Festival.

Mary Shelley (?), 1831. No longer is it certain whether the portrait by Samuel John Stump is in fact of her. Courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Matthew Arnold, 1870s. Photograph by Elliott & Fry, London. Courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Matthias Pintscher. Photograph by Luc Hossepied. Courtesy of the website of the Ensemble intercontemporain, Paris.

Max Müller, ca. 1853. The photograph was published posthumously in My Autobiography (London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1901), p. 268.

Max Weber, at a conference in Burg Lauenstein, 1917. The photograph is courtesy of the website of the Bildarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin.

Morton Feldman. Photograph by Roberto Masotti. Courtesy of Between Sound and Space, a website dedicated to Edition of Contemporary Music (ECM) Records, Munich.

Nahum Tate, ca. 1685. Anonymous contemporary engraving courtesy of the website of Electrum Magazine.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Salem, 1840. Portrait by Charles Osgood. In the collection of the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem. Courtesy of the website of the museum.

New Order, “Bizarre Love Triangle” (1986), directed by Robert Longo. A well-⁠known still image from the video.

Nicolas de Chamfort, a contemporary engraving. The image is courtesy of a webforum devoted to Marie Antoinette and her century.

Opening of the Zero exhibition at the Stedlijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1965, photographed by Ad Petersen and Henk Peeters. The photograph is courtesy of the website of the ZERO Foundation, Düsseldorf.

Oscar Wilde, at Ashford Castle, October 1878. He stands at the right in this photograph.

Oskar Holweck, “9.VIII.58” (1958). The image is courtesy of the website of the ZERO Foundation, Düsseldorf.

Otto Piene, “Gelbgelbweißheißschnell (Stencil Painting)” (1958). The image is courtesy of the website of the ZERO Foundation, Düsseldorf.

–––––, “Kreisweiß” (1957). In the collection of the Hubertus Schoeller Stiftung, Leopold-⁠Hoesch-⁠Museum, Düren. The image is courtesy of the website of the ZERO Foundation, Düsseldorf.

–––––, “Pearl Flowers” (1965-⁠1974 (2015)). The image is courtesy of the website of the ZERO Foundation, Düsseldorf.

Pär Lagerkvist. Photograph by Ulf Stråhle (SVT Bild).

Paul Celan (Paul Antschel), 1938. Passport photograph courtesy of the website of Oliver Wieters.

Paul Valéry, 1894. Photograph by Pierre Louÿs.

Paul Verlaine, early 1860s (?). The photograph was unknown until 2015. Courtesy of the website of the Bibliothèque royale de Belgique – Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Brussels.

Paxton Locher, Gayton Road House, London. Image courtesy of the website of The Modern House.

Peter Paul Rubens, “St. Gregory of Nazianzus,” ca. 1620. The painting was created for Antwerp’s Jesuit church, and is now in the collection of the Albright-⁠Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo.

Philarète Chasles. Photograph by Nadar (Gaspard-⁠⁠Félix Tournachon). In the collection of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris. Image courtesy of the webportal Gallica.

Philip Sidney. Portrait by an unknown artist (ca. 1576), courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Pierre Le Moine, La Dévotion aisée: the title page of the first edition (Paris: Chez Antoine de Sommaville, 1652). Image courtesy of the webportal Gallica.

Pierre-⁠Ambroise Richebourg, “Barricades de la Commune, au coin de la place de l’Hôtel-⁠de-⁠Ville et de la rue de Rivoli” (April 1871). In the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Photograph courtesy of the website Vergue.

Pierre-⁠Joseph Proudhon, 1858. Photograph by Nadar, from the original glass negative. Collection of Michel François Braive, Paris. Printed in his book L’Age de la photographie: De Niépce à nos jours (Brussels: Éditions de la Connaissance, 1965).

Plotinus (?). A head in the collection of the Museo Ostiense, Ostia Antica. Image courtesy of the website dedicated to the locale.

Pol Bury, “Erection molle” (1961). The image is courtesy of the website of the ZERO Foundation, Düsseldorf.

Quintus Ennius. A mosaic from the third century. In the collection of the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.

René Descartes, 1647-⁠49. Portrait by Jan Baptist Weenix. Courtesy of the website of the Centraal Museum, Utrecht.

Richard Tauber, 1935. Photograph by Howard Coster. In the collection of the National Portrait Gallery, London. Courtesy of the museum’s website.

Robert Browning, Florence, ca. June 1860. Photograph by the Fratelli D’Alessandri.

Robert Burton, 1635. Portrait by Gilbert Jackson. In the collection of Brasenose College, University of Oxford. Courtesy of the website of Art UK.

Robert Louis Stevenson. Photograph by Charles L. Ritzmann. In the Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature, New York Public Library. Courtesy of the library’s Digital Collections webpage.

Robert Rauschenberg, “Cy (Twombly) + Relics – Rome,” the ninth of an edition of twenty-⁠five (1952). Image courtesy of the website of the auction-⁠house Phillips.

Robert Schumann, early 1844, before the trip to Russia. An engraving by Auguste Hüssener, 1847, after a portrait by Joseph Matthäus Aigner, which is now missing. The engraving is in the collection of the Stadtmuseum, Bonn. Image courtesy of the Schumann-⁠Portal website.

–––––, Hamburg, March 1850. Daguerreotype by Johann Anton Völlner. In the collection of the Robert-⁠Schumann-⁠Haus, Zwickau.

Robert Siodmak, 1920s (?). A publicity photograph from UFA.

Roger Bannister, Iffley Road Stadium, Oxford, May 6, 1954. Photograph by Norman Potter. Courtesy of the website of Time.

Samuel Beckett, early 1930s. Photograph courtesy of the Samuel Beckett Estate.

Socrates. This head is a Roman work (first century) that may have been copied from a bronze statue by Lysippos which has been lost. It is in the collection of the Louvre, Paris.

Some artists of Zero in Alfred Schmela’s apartment, in Düsseldorf, ca. 1965. Photographed by Jon Naar. The image is courtesy of the website of the ZERO Foundation, Düsseldorf.

Stan Brakhage (James Stanley Brakhage). Photograph by David Aschkenas. Courtesy of Fred Camper’s website.

Stendhal (Marie-⁠Henri Beyle), 1807. Portrait by Louis Léopold Boilly. Private collection.

–––––, 1839. The painting is signed Fornelli. Image courtesy of the website of Drouot, Paris.

Stéphane Mallarmé, in his apartment, 89, rue de Rome, ca. 1894-⁠95. Image courtesy of the website of Sotheby’s.

The Smiths (Andy Rourke, Morrissey, Johnny Marr, Mike Joyce), at the Lads Club, Salford, 1985. Photograph by Stephen Wright, courtesy of his website.

The Wanderer: a page of the manuscript (“The Exeter Book”), in the collection of the Exeter Cathedral Library. Image courtesy of Bernard Muir, Department of English (emeritus), University of Melbourne.

Thomas Carlyle, July 31, 1854. The photograph was published as the frontispiece in the edition of Past and Present in his Collected Works (London: Chapman and Hall, 1870).

Thomas De Quincey, 1846. Portrait by Sir John Watson Gordon. In the collection of the National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh. Image courtesy of the website of the museum.

Thomas Hobbes. A portrait attributed to David Beck. Collection of the National Galleries of Scotland, Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. Courtesy of the website of Art UK.

–––––, 1676. A portrait in the manner of John Michael Wright. In the collection of Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire. Image courtesy of the website of the National Trust.

Thomas Stearns Eliot, at Faber & Gwyer, March 1926. Photograph by Henry Ware Eliot, Jr. Courtesy of the Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

–––––, outside Faber & Gwyer, London, 1926. Photograph by Henry Ware Eliot. Courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Tona Scherchen, Cathy Berberian, and the Quartetto della Società Cameristica Italiana, at the premiere of “Wai” in Donaueschingen, October 19, 1968. Photograph courtesy of the Cathy Berberian website.

Too Many Zooz (Matt Muirhead, David Parks, and Leo Pellegrino), in the Union Square station, New York. Photograph by Audrey Connolly (“Bytegirl”).

Vassily Kandinsky, “Autour du cercle” (May-⁠August 1940). Image courtesy of the website of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Vincent van Gogh, “La Nuit étoilée” (1889), detail. Image courtesy of the website of the Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Virgil. A bust in the Parco Vergiliano a Piedigrotta, Naples. Photograph by Sandra Jontz. Courtesy of the website of Stars and Stripes.

Virginia Woolf, November 27, 1934. Photograph by Man Ray. In the collection of the National Portrait Gallery, London. Courtesy of the museum’s website.

Voltaire (François-⁠Marie Arouet). Statue on the Hôtel de Ville, Paris. Photograph by Jebulon, courtesy of Wikipedia.

Walter Benjamin, ca. 1928. A passport photograph. Courtesy of the webportal of the Walter Benjamin Archiv, Akademie der Künste, Berlin.

–––––, in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, 1937. Photograph by Gisèle Freund. Courtesy of the website of the Institut Mémoires de l’édition contemporaine, Saint-⁠Germain la Blanche-⁠Herbe.

–––––, at the Abbey of Pontigny, 1938. Photograph by Gisèle Freund.

Wilfred Owen. Photograph courtesy of the website of the Wilfred Owen Association.

William Butler Yeats, July 15, 1911. Photograph by George Charles Beresford. In the collection of the National Portrait Gallery, London. Courtesy of the museum’s website.

William Hazlitt. Portrait by John Hazlitt. In the collection of the Maidstone Museum & Bentlif Art Gallery, Maidstone. Courtesy of the website of Art UK.

–––––. Etching by K. Levin. In the H. Beard Print Collection, the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Image courtesy of the website of the museum.

William Henry Fox Talbot, “View of the Boulevards at Paris” (May 1843). In the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. Photograph courtesy of the website Vergue.

William Shakespeare (?). A detail of the frontispiece of John Gerard’s The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes (London: John Norton, 1597), which may depict the playwright.

William Wordsworth, 1818. Portrait by Richard Carruthers. In the collection of Dove Cottage & the Wordsworth Museum, Grasmere. Courtesy of the website of Art UK.

Władysław Starewicz. Image courtesy of the Culture.pl website.

Workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder, “Martin Luther,” 1532 (?). The painting is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Image courtesy of the website of the museum.

Wystan Hugh Auden, 1930. Photograph by Cecil Beaton. Courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

–––––, 1937. Photograph by Howard Coster. Courtesy of the website of the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Yves Chauris. The photograph is courtesy of his website.

Yves Klein, in his apartment, Paris, 1959. This photograph is courtesy of the website of the Yves Klein Archives, Paris.

–––––, at work on his “Relief éponge (RE 28),” Malibu, 1961. Photograph courtesy of the Yves Klein Archives.

–––––, at work on the “Fire Paintings” in the laboratory of the Gaz de France, La Plaine Saint-Denis, 1962. Photograph courtesy of the Yves Klein Archives.

–––––, “L’Accord bleu (RE 10)” (1960). Image courtesy of the website of the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

–––––, “Peinture de feu sans titre (F 67)” (1962). Image courtesy of the Yves Klein Archives.

–––––, “Relief éponge or sans titre (RE 47 II)” (1961). Image courtesy of the Yves Klein Archives.

–––––, “Relief éponge rose sans titre (RE 32)” (1961). Image courtesy of the Yves Klein Archives.

–––––, “Le Rose du bleu (RE 22)” (1960). The image is courtesy of the website of Christies.

–––––, score of the “Symphonie monoton-⁠silence” (1949/1961). The image is courtesy of the website of the Archives de la poésie sonore & numérique.